WT 2021/22 | Schlaun StudiesCopyright: © Guangyuan Yu
Brick Analysis in the Work of Johann Conrad Schlaun: The Loreto Chapel in Dyckburg (Münster)
Seminar Work by Guangyuan Yu
As part of the seminar "The Architecture of Johann Conrad Schlaun – Reception of Baroque Building Typology and Perfection of Bourgeois Building Traditions", his Loreto Chapel in Dyckburg, built in 1740, was one of the buildings studied. The pilgrimage chapel, which is accessible to pilgrims at all times, was extended by an octagonal building in 1894 and by a burial chapel in 1914.
Following the model of Holy House in Loreto, the original ground plan of Schlaun's chapel corresponded to a simple, longitudinal rectangular hall, which found its rear end in a presbytery raised by two steps.
The main entrance is located on the main façade. The double pilasters and the cornice curved in the form of a segmental arch in the center frame – together with the coat of arms – the central portal, above which the gable with central oculus and the crowning bell lantern sit. The portal, coat of arms, oculus, bell and cross form the main central axis.
The chapel is built of brick. By dimensioning and calculation, the stone size is 27.1 x 12.8 x 5.65 cm (L x W x H) and the joint width is 1.5 cm. The elevation clearly shows that a cross bond was selected (for the necessary stability). This distributes the loads over the entire cross-section. In the corner construction, the stretcher course and the binder course of the abutting walls are always offset. The pilaster strips protruding at the corners are a special feature. In this way, a quarter brick protrudes from the plane of the facade in each case; the "empty space" created at the rear is filled. Three-quarter and half bricks are also used.
The work of Guangyuan Yu shows the modular connection of the building with the common brick format in the Münster diocese. Johann Conrad Schlaun interpreted the rectangular basic form of the Casa Santa, which was carried by angels from Nazareth to Loreto, with a consistent imitation of the coupled supports and the bay division of the holy model in the basilica of Loreto. The brick format reproduces the usual foot measurement of 28.6 cm in Münster with the halves necessary for the brick bond.